The city – SER / ESTAR / HAY

In this post you are going to learn the difference between SERESTAR and HAYtaking as an example the description 

of a city  

It is very simple!  


As you might remember we use SER when we describe the characteristics of the citywhen we answer the question 

¿Cómo es? Thereforewe will be using adjectivesFor example: Roma esuna ciudad grande y es muy turística.  


We use ESTAR to talk about the location.  ¿Dónde está Roma? Roma está en Italia, lejos de Milán.  


We use HAY (Remember that it is invariable: Hay un coche, hay tres coches) to talk about existence and quantity. ¿En Roma hay metro?, ¿cuántas personas viven en Roma? En Roma hay mucha gente en verano.  


¿Cómo es tu ciudad? 

Adjectives that change meaning with SER and ESTAR

Once the uses and differences of SER and ESTAR have been studied, it is time to learn some vocabulary.

In Spanish there are adjectives that depending if used with SER or with ESTAR change their meaning. Do you know them?

Here you are a list with the most common adjectives. Remember that any adjective changes its meaning if we use it with the verb SER (it means that it is a permanent and defining characteristic of the person, animal or thing) or with the verb ESTAR (it means that this characteristic is temporary and refers at that exact moment).

For example, what is the difference between these two sentences?

  1. Andrea es nerviosa.
  2. Andrea está nerviosa.

In the first sentence we say that Andrea is a nervous person, always. It is a part of her personality, if we think of Andrea we define her as nervous.

In the second sentence we say that now and in this very moment for some reason Andrea is nervous. She is usually a calm person but not today, today she is nervous.

Check the list of the most common adjectives, do you know any other adjective?

Do you need an explanation of the adjectives which change their meaning if we use them with SER or ESTAR? Rocío explains it to you in this video! 

SER o no SER, ¡esa es la cuestión!

One of the most difficult questions in Spanish is to be able to understand when we have to use SER and when ESTAR… Here you have a brief scheme to make it easier.  

Practice answering these questions: ¿Cómo estás?, ¿Cómo eres?

Do not forget to study the adjectives that change their meaning depending on whether we use the verb SER or the verb ESTAR!

Do you need an explanation of the uses of SER and ESTAR? Rocío explains it to you in this video! 


With this infographic we have tried to simplify the uses of ESTAR.

Remember that the use of SER and ESTAR does not always follow the rule of SER = permanent, ESTAR = temporary.

For example, when we talk about the location (which may or may not be permanent) in Spanish we use the verb ESTAR:

Bangkok está en Tailandia.

Another of the most common uses, among others, is describing the temporary physical states or mood. Check its uses and the conjugation in presente de indicativo and if you have questions write a comment!

Do not forget to study the adjectives that change their meaning depending on whether we use the verb SER or the verb ESTAR!


In this post we will see the most frequent uses of the verb SER and its conjugation in presente de indicativo.

Remember that we cannot always abide by the rule of using “SER when it is permanent and ESTAR when it is temporary”.

We use the verb SER to describe permanent characteristics of people, animals and things but also to talk about quantities, prices and events.

Review all its uses and its conjugation in presente de indicativo and practice in the comments with some phrases. ¡Es muy fácil! 😉

Do not forget to study the adjectives that change their meaning depending on whether we use the verb SER or the verb ESTAR!

Complemento directo or indirecto?

Learning how to use los pronombres de Complemento (or Objeto) Directo and Indirecto correctly is difficult even for Spanish speakers. That is why we wanted to simplify the explanation with this infographic based on what we are taught at school when we are young. Ask the verb! If we ask the verb we will know if the complement receives the action of the verb directly or indirectly and, therefore, the correct pronoun that we must use. We hope you like it and don’t forget to share and leave your comments!

Verbos de cambio

verbos de cambio

“Los verbos de cambio” are verbs that express voluntary or involuntary changes that can be temporary or permanent in the appearance, attitude and even the principles of a person. Unlike other languages ​​in which they use one or two verbs (in English “to get”, “to become”; in French “devenir”; in Portuguese “ficar”, “virar”) in Spanish we have several depending on the specific context . It may sound complicated but it is not! With this material you will learn to differentiate and use them correctly.

Do not forget to leave your comments and share!

verbos de cambio