Forming plurals in Spanish is very easy … as easy as following the following rules:

If the word ends in a vowel you need to add an S. El libro >> Los libros.

If the word ends in consonant you need to  add ES. La canción >> Las canciones.

But, as it is usual in Spanish…There are some exceptions!

Look at this resource and watch the video and you won’t have any problems forming the plural in Spanish ever again!

Did you find it useful? Share!

And don’t forget to review EL GÉNERO masculino and femenino. 😊

Rocío explains this all in this video:


In Spanish, as in many other languages, we find that words can be feminine or masculine. The general rule is that when the word’s ending is -a is feminine and when the word’s ending is -o masculine … but this is Spanish my friend and, as usual, there are exceptions!

In the picture you will find an infographic with the general rules and exceptions, as well as a reminder of the artículos determinados and a tip for when you do not know what gender a word is.

If you have found it useful and want to learn more, do not forget to check EL NÚMERO singular and plural.

Rocío explains it all in this video:

Pretérito pluscuamperfecto

It’s very simple. Pretérito pluscuamperfecto is the past of the past. When we talk about a story happened in the past and make reference to another that happened before … We use Pretérito pluscuamperfecto! As you already know the irregular participles it is very easy! Combine the auxiliary verb HABER in Pretérito imperfecto.

When you started studying Spanish, had you visited any Spanish-speaking country before?

Answer in the comments! (In Spanish!)

Still not sure about when to use each tense? Check this post >> Contraste de pasados.

Do you want Rocío to explain this to youWatch this video! 

Pretérito imperfecto

When we tell a story from the past and describe the circumstances surrounding it, we use Pretérito imperfecto. Also when an action is usual or lengthens in time. Here you can find its uses and conjugation. Luckily … There are only three irregular verbs! 😊

Do you want to practice? Describe in Spanish how your best childhood friend looked like!

Still not sure about when to use each tense? Check this post >> Contraste de pasados.

Do you want Rocío to explain this to youWatch this video! 

Pretérito indefinido

Pretérito indefinido is the tense we use to talk about actions completed in the past. They have no relation to the present and are temporary. They are not usual or lengthen in time. Here you can find how to use it and its regular and irregular conjugation.

When was the first time you studied Spanish? Practice your Spanish answering in the comments 😊

Still not sure about when to use each tense? Check this post >> Contraste de pasados.

Rocío explains this all in this video 😊 

Contraste de pasados

In Spanish there are 4 different types of past tenses that we combine to talk about actions in the past. Pretérito perfecto, Pretérito indefinido, Pretérito imperfecto and Pretérito pluscuamperfecto.

Deciding when to use each one … is not an easy thing! Here you can find a very simple and general reminder with the most basic differences. If you want to deepen and practice you can access the specific infographics of each tense.

Share it if you found it useful and leave your comments and doubts below. Enjoy!

Do you want Rocío to explain this to you? Look at this video! 

Wanna practice? Watch this video!

Gerund in Spanish

You’ll find this week’s post very usefull if you want to learn how to use el GERUNDIO in SpanishIt is really easy! 

El gerundio is formed by adding -ando to the root of verbs ending in -ar and -iendo to the root of verbs ending in -er / -ir.  


hablar >> hablando 

comer >> comiendo 

vivir >> viviendo 


In some cases… is irregular! 

The verbs ending in -ir that in the present tense / presente de indicativo required a change of vowel also modify the vowel in gerund: e >> i. 


Pedir >> pidiendo 

sentir >> sintiendo 

venir >> viniendo 

mentir >> mintiendo 

reír >> riendo 

servir >> sirviendo 

decir >> diciendo 

seguir >> siguiendo 


Verbs ending in –er or -ir that in the present tense / presente de indicativo required a vowel change also modify the vowel in gerund: -o> -u. 


poder >> pudiendo 

dormir >> durmiendo 

morir >> muriendo 


If the root ends in a vowelthe i of -iendo becomes a y. i >> y


construir >> construyendo 

leer >> leyendo 

traer >> trayendo 

oír >> oyendo 

ir >> yendo 


Comparatives and superlatives in Spanish

We use los comparativos de superioridad, inferioridad and igualdad to compare two or more objects or people and el superlativo to talk about an object or person “level of quality” and there are two types: relativo and absoluto. 

In this post you will learn how to use them and the irregularities of the latter. 

El comparativo de superioridad is formed with the adverb MÁSadjectiveadverb or noun + QUE

Tú eres más divertida que Sandra. 


 El comparativo de inferioridad is formed with the adverb MENOS adjectiveadverbnoun QUE

 Yo tengo menos seguidores en Instagram que Emilio. 


IMPORTANT! As in other languages there are some irregularities: 

It is not correct to say “más bueno-a” but MEJORMi casa es mejor que tu casa. 

It is not correct to say “más malo-a” but PEOREsta comida es peor que la comida de mi madre. 

It is not correct to saywhen we talk about age, “más grande” but MAYORMi hermano es mayor que yo. 

It is not correct to say “más pequeño-a” but MENORSoy menor que mi hermano. 


 El comparativo de igualdad is made with TAN adjectiveadverb COMO or IGUAL DE adjectiveadverb + QUE. 


Conduces tan rápido como Fernando Alonso. 

Marta es igual de inteligente que su madre. 


 When we use el comparativo de igualdad with a noun TAN must agree on gender and numberTANTO-A, TANTOS-ASnoun + COMO. 


 En el zoo hay tantos osos como tigres. 


 We classify el superlativo in relative and absolute. 


Superlativo relativo is formed with EL, LA, LOS, LAS + MÁS / MENOS + ADJECTIVE. 


 El más inteligente de la clase es Jesús. 

Quito es la ciudad más bonita del mundo. 

Los hijos de mi prima son los menos divertidos. 


El superlativo absoluto is formed with Adjective + ísimo-a, ísimos-as, and we use them to emphasize that something or someone has a very high level of a certain quality. 


Sofía Vergara es guapísima. (Es muy guapa, es super guapa) 

Esta película es buenísima. 


And, as usual, some are irregular!  

Amable >> amabilísimo-a 

Antiguo-a >> antiquísimo-a 

Fuerte >> fortísimo-a / fuertísimo-a 

Joven >> jovencísimo-a 

Lejos >> lejísimos 

Largo-a >> larguísimo-a 

Pobre >> paupérrimo-a 

Rico-a >> riquísimo-a 

Malo-a >> malísimo-a / pésimo-a 

Cerca > cerquísima 


The city – SER / ESTAR / HAY

In this post you are going to learn the difference between SERESTAR and HAYtaking as an example the description 

of a city  

It is very simple!  


As you might remember we use SER when we describe the characteristics of the citywhen we answer the question 

¿Cómo es? Thereforewe will be using adjectivesFor example: Roma esuna ciudad grande y es muy turística.  


We use ESTAR to talk about the location.  ¿Dónde está Roma? Roma está en Italia, lejos de Milán.  


We use HAY (Remember that it is invariable: Hay un coche, hay tres coches) to talk about existence and quantity. ¿En Roma hay metro?, ¿cuántas personas viven en Roma? En Roma hay mucha gente en verano.  


¿Cómo es tu ciudad? 

Adjectives that change meaning with SER and ESTAR

Once the uses and differences of SER and ESTAR have been studied, it is time to learn some vocabulary.

In Spanish there are adjectives that depending if used with SER or with ESTAR change their meaning. Do you know them?

Here you are a list with the most common adjectives. Remember that any adjective changes its meaning if we use it with the verb SER (it means that it is a permanent and defining characteristic of the person, animal or thing) or with the verb ESTAR (it means that this characteristic is temporary and refers at that exact moment).

For example, what is the difference between these two sentences?

  1. Andrea es nerviosa.
  2. Andrea está nerviosa.

In the first sentence we say that Andrea is a nervous person, always. It is a part of her personality, if we think of Andrea we define her as nervous.

In the second sentence we say that now and in this very moment for some reason Andrea is nervous. She is usually a calm person but not today, today she is nervous.

Check the list of the most common adjectives, do you know any other adjective?

Do you need an explanation of the adjectives which change their meaning if we use them with SER or ESTAR? Rocío explains it to you in this video!